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Spectrum Software has released Micro-Cap 11, the eleventh generation of our SPICE circuit simulator.

For users of previous Micro-Cap versions, check out the new features available in the latest version. For those of you who are new to Micro-Cap, take our features tour to see what Micro-Cap has to offer.

 

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FSK System Using a PLL

 

The PLL can be used in many applications. Here's a circuit that uses the PLL to implement an FSK system. Its general block diagram is as follows:

FSK System Using a PLL

The heart of the system is the PLL discussed in the first article. The front end looks like this:

QAM modulator test circuit

This is a simple digital data source that drives an analog RC network. Its voltage is used to control an NFV source with the definition: .DEFINE FSK IF(V(DATA_IN)<.5,SIN(2*PI*FZERO*T),SIN(2*PI*FONE*T))

The NFV source looks at the analog end of the digital gate and simply switches the frequency of a sinusoid between 5000 Hz and 5100 Hz depending on the data stream. This creates the FSK encoded signal that is fed to the PLL input phase detector.

Ideally, if the input frequency is 5000 Hz then the system outputs a "0". If the input frequency is 5100 Hz then the system outputs a "1".

Here is what the output looks like for one input data stream.

QAM modulation/demodulation transient analysis

As the FSK shifts frequency to represent the two states, the PLL tracks by changing the filter output / VCO input voltage, reconstructing the original data waveform. The output buffer waveshapes the signal, removing overshoot and other noise.

The main part of the filter output signal noise is coming from the sum component of the phase detector. It can be removed with a stronger filter at the expense of transition time.

 
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