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News:

Spectrum Software has released Micro-Cap 11, the eleventh generation of our SPICE circuit simulator.

For users of previous Micro-Cap versions, check out the new features available in the latest version. For those of you who are new to Micro-Cap, take our features tour to see what Micro-Cap has to offer.

 

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RMS Macro

 

The root mean square calculation provides a method to statistically measure the magnitude of a varying waveform. Micro-Cap provides an RMS operator that can be used to plot the root mean square value of any specified waveform. However, the RMS operator can only be used for plotting waveforms in an analysis as it is not available for use in expressions within the schematic. For an instance where a component such as a switch needs to be triggered by an RMS value, circuitry would need to be added to perform the measurement in the schematic. One macro circuit configuration for calculating an RMS value is displayed below.

RMS Macro Circuit

For a continuous function over the time range T1 to T2, the equation for the root mean square calculation is as follows:

Root Mean Square Calculation

The macro circuit is designed to model this equation. The nonlinear function voltage (NFV) source, E1, squares the voltage at node In. The squared voltage is then fed into an Int macro which performs the integration calculation. For the RMS macro, the T1 parameter from the above equation will be defined as 0 which is the typical value most simulations start with. Since this macro produces a running root mean square value, the T2 parameter will be the time that is currently being analyzed. The output of the integrator is then referenced by the E2 NFV source in the following equation:

sqrt(V(IntOut)/T)

This expression takes the output voltage of the integrator and divides by the current time of the simulation. The T variable can be used in place of T2 - T1 due to the assumption of T1 being 0. Finally, a square root operator is applied to produce the final RMS value. Due to both the divide by T and the integration within the RMS circuit, any transient simulation using this macro should have its Operating Point option disabled in the Transient Analysis Limits dialog box.

For circuits, one of the common uses of the RMS calculation is to calculate the power dissipation in individual components when the current and voltage are varying functions. An example circuit using the RMS macro appears below in which the macro is used to calculate the RMS power of the load resistor.

RMS Macro Example Circuit

The circuit contains a typical three phase power supply. A six pulse diode rectifier is used as an AC to DC power converter to produce a DC voltage at the load of the circuit. The power through the load resistor will peak during the initial transient of this circuit. To help protect the load, a switch has been connected on each side between the load and the six pulse diode rectifier. These switches will be triggered based on the RMS power dissipated by the load resistor. The E1 NFV source calculates the instantaneous dissipative power of the resistor with the following expression:

V(Rload)*I(Rload)

The value of the instantaneous power is then used as the input into the RMS macro. The RMS power of the load resistor is equivalent to the RMS macro's output voltage at node Prms. Since the switches should stay open once they are triggered, they do not reference the voltage at the output of the RMS macro directly. Instead a Timer component is used to trigger the switches. The Timer component has its INPUTEXPR attribute defined as:

V(Prms) > 3000

which will count each instance that the voltage at node Prms exceeds 3000 volts. The two switches share the same model statement which is defined as follows:

.MODEL LOADSW VSWITCH (RON=1m ROFF=1e6 VON=.2 VOFF=.8)

When the input voltage to the switch is below .2V, the switch is on, and when it is above .8V, the switch is off. The input voltage to the switches is the voltage at the Count pin of the timer. The Count pin keeps track of the number of events that occur defined by the INPUTEXPR attribute. This pin will initially be set to zero volts at the beginning of the simulation so that the switches are on. The first time that the voltage at Prms becomes greater than 3000V, the Count pin voltage is incremented to one volt which will turn off the switches. Since the Reset pin of the Timer is grounded, the voltage at node Count will only increase or stay the same so the switch will remain open for the remainder of the simulation. The transient analysis of this circuit is shown below. Again note that the Operating Point option has been disabled for the RMS macro to operate correctly.

RMS Macro Example Analysis

The top plot displays the output voltage of the RMS macro. The second plot displays the voltage at the Count pin of the Timer. Note that when the RMS power exceeds the 3000 limit set in the Timer that the voltage is incremented from zero to one thus turning off the switches. The bottom two plots show the voltage and the current through the load resistor respectively.

 
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