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Spectrum Software has released Micro-Cap 11, the eleventh generation of our SPICE circuit simulator.

For users of previous Micro-Cap versions, check out the new features available in the latest version. For those of you who are new to Micro-Cap, take our features tour to see what Micro-Cap has to offer.

 

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Quasi Small Signal Analysis

 

The standard AC analysis is a small signal analysis that calculates the DC operating point of a circuit and then linearizes the devices about the operating point values. For AC analysis to produce reasonable results, the operating point values should be characteristic of the circuit's standard mode of operation such as the linear mode of operation for an opamp circuit. With switching circuits, there are commonly two modes of operation that an AC response would have to take into account. Since a standard AC analysis can only take into account a single mode, different methods must be used to obtain a frequency response.

One method is to use average models of all the switching components in the schematic. Average models average the state equations of the two switch positions over a switching cycle, but they are not very common and can be difficult to create. The method that will be described in this article is a quasi small signal analysis that uses the Fourier capabilities of transient analysis to convert a nonlinear simulation into its frequency domain equivalent.

Quasi Small Signal example circuit

The example circuit used to demonstrate this technique is displayed above. The circuit is a simple low pass RC filter. A linear circuit is used in this example instead of a switching circuit in order to be able to compare the quasi small signal analysis to the standard AC analysis. In addition to the RC filter, the only other component in the schematic is a nonlinear function voltage source whose main attributes are defined as:

VALUE = sin(2*PI*FS1*T)
FREQ = 1

The Freq attribute, if defined, has priority over the Value attribute during an AC analysis, and in this case, it defines a 1 volt small signal source for an AC simulation run. The Freq attribute will be ignored during a transient simulation. The Value attribute defines a one volt peak amplitude sine wave signal during a transient run whose frequency is set by the symbolic variable FS1. FS1 has its value set through a define statement present in the schematic. The standard AC analysis is displayed below. The magnitude of the output voltage is the top plot, and the phase of the output voltage is the bottom plot. This plot will be the benchmark for the quasi small signal results.

Standard AC analysis simulation

The quasi small signal analysis is simulated through the transient analysis capabilities of Micro-Cap. For transient analysis, the symbolic variable FS1 will be stepped in order to obtain the circuit's output waveform at different frequencies of operation. In the Stepping dialog box, the List method has been selected for FS1, and the list of values to be stepped through has been defined as:

.01,.02,.04,.08,.1,.2,.4,1,2,5,10,25

One limitation of the quasi small signal analysis method is that it has to run a full transient simulation for each frequency, so the run time can get lengthy. Therefore, both the frequency range and the number of frequency samples will tend to be limited when compared to the standard AC analysis. For this example, three to four frequency samples will be taken for each decade as the range varies from .01Hz to 25Hz.

The next step is to determine the appropriate Time Range and Maximum Time Step values that will provide a good sample across all of the different frequencies. Since the smallest frequency being simulated is .01Hz, the minimum time range for a single cycle at that frequency must be 100s. All of the other frequencies specified also share 100s as a common period multiple so this can be the sampling range that will be used. However, since there is an initial startup transient that will need to be ignored for a proper Fourier analysis, the Time Range field will be set to 200s so that the waveforms are given time to settle. In the FFT page of the Analysis Properties dialog box, the Upper Time Limit value is set to 200 and the Lower Time Limit value is set to 100. These settings will exclude the initial transient from the Fourier analysis and set the range that the Fourier analysis will sample to the last hundred seconds of the simulation. With this range, the Fourier will produce a frequency sample every .01Hz. Therefore, the Number of Points field in the FFT page has been set to 65536 to ensure that the Fourier samples will be adequate for the higher frequencies being simulated.

For the Maximum Time Step, the value will be set according to the highest frequency being simulated. In this case, the highest frequency has been specified as 25Hz which translates into a period of 40ms. Setting the Maximum Time Step to 1ms will produce a minimum of forty data points per cycle at 25Hz and will provide a good sampling for all of the frequencies being simulated. The resultant transient analysis is displayed below.

Transient analysis simulation

The top plot is the actual voltage of node Out at each frequency step. The first 100s of simulation data has been discarded due to the settings in the FFT page of the Analysis Properties dialog box. The second plot displays the harmonic content of each of the stepped output waveforms. The third plot displays the phase output of the Fourier plots for each of the stepped output waveforms, and the bottom plot shows the total harmonic distortion of node Out at each frequency step. Note that the Thd operator has had its optional reference frequency parameter defined as FS1 so that the distortion will be calculated versus the frequency of operation for each step. Although the distortion in this analysis is due to timestep aliasing, there is one slight difference in the following technique for the Thd operator that makes it a worthwhile addition to this example.

Though all of the important data is displayed on the screen, it is not in an easily readable format in determining the quasi small signal response. A performance plot can be used to extract the appropriate data and provide a better visualization of the frequency information. Performance plots can be generated by right clicking on the waveform name in the plot or by selecting the menu option Transient/Performance Windows/Add Performance Window. For this example, the performance plot created is displayed below. The plot has been defined to display the following three waveforms:

Y_Level(HARM(V(OUT)),1,1,FS1)
Y_Level(PH(FFT(V(OUT))),1,1,FS1)+90
Y_Level(THD(HARM(V(OUT)),FS1),1,1,10*FS1)

The Y_Level operators will return the Y value of each stepped waveform at the X value that is specified within the expression. The top waveform plots the value of the harmonic of V(Out) at frequency FS1 for each stepped frequency. The plot reproduces the AC gain response and matches the V(Out) waveform from the standard AC analysis simulation.

The middle waveform plots the value of the phase of the Fourier response of V(Out) at frequency FS1 for each stepped frequency. This plot reproduces the AC phase response and matches the Ph(V(Out)) waveform from the standard AC analysis simulation. Note that an offset of 90 degrees was added to the waveform expression. This offset compensates for the use of the cosine expressions within the Fourier mathematical routines and aligns the phase plot with the typical AC results.

The bottom waveform plots the total harmonic distortion level at frequency 10*FS1 for each stepped frequency. Since FS1 is the reference frequency at which the distortion is measured against, the data must be extracted from a frequency greater than FS1. Setting the X value to 10*FS1 will include the second through tenth harmonics in the distortion calculation. One caveat to this procedure is that enough points must be calculated for the Fourier plots. For example, if the Number of Points field was set to 8192 in the FFT page, at the .01Hz sampling used in this example, the frequency information would only extend out to 40.96Hz. There would not be data available at 10*FS1 for the 5Hz, 10Hz, and 25Hz steps, and the Y_Value expression would return a value of zero for those points.

Quasi Small Signal performance plot

 
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