Spectrum Software
spacer
Industrial Strength Simulation
select:

divider

 

News:

Spectrum Software has released Micro-Cap 11, the eleventh generation of our SPICE circuit simulator.

For users of previous Micro-Cap versions, check out the new features available in the latest version. For those of you who are new to Micro-Cap, take our features tour to see what Micro-Cap has to offer.

 

divider

 

Digital Potentiometer Macro

 

A digital potentiometer performs the same function as a mechanical potentiometer or a variable resistor. Instead of a mechanical wiper, the wiper position in a digital potentiometer is determined by the events on logical inputs. Digital potentiometers have a few advantages over their electromechanical counterparts. They can be used to handle a wide variety of specialty tasks that are not possible with the standard potentiometer. Among these are remote process control, remote calibration, analog to digital conversions, digital to analog conversions, variable gain amplification, and variable oscillation.

The digital potentiometer macro in this article was loosely based on the MAX5450-5455 series of devices from Maxim. These devices are digital potentiometers with an up/down interface consisting of two fixed resistors with 256 digitally controlled wiper contacts (taps). There are three digital inputs that determine the tap point that will be accessible to the wiper. These digital inputs are INC, CS, and U/D. The INC input is the wiper increment control input. A high to low transition on this input increments or decrements the wiper position depending on the states of CS and U/D. The CS input is the chip select input. When this input is low, the wiper position may be changed through INC and U/D. The U/D input is the up/down control input. When this input is high, a high-to-low transition on INC increments the wiper position, and when the input is low, a high-to-low transition on INC decrements the wiper position. If the wiper is at either the high or low end of the resistor array, any increment or decrement in the direction of the endpoint will not change the wiper position, so in other words, there is no wrap around effect. Finally, upon power-up the initial setting for the wiper is at midscale (tap 127).

Macro Circuit
The basic modeling of the digital potentiometer macro consists of a 256 bit counter whose outputs are sent to a DtoA converter. The output of the DtoA converter is then used to calculate the value of a pair of resistors.

The 256 bit counter keeps track of the tap position the wiper is at. The counter used in the macro appears below. The heart of the counter consists of 8 J-K flip-flops that store the tap position on their non-inverting outputs. The INC input is fed directly into the clock inputs on each of the flip-flops. The clear and preset pins of each flip-flop are connected to either the Hi node or the Set node. The Hi node is at a constant one state that is produced by a Fixed Digital component. The Set node waveform is defined by a digital stimulus which produces a short 10ns zero state that then returns to the one state for the rest of the simulation. This waveform initializes the flip-flops. The U1 through U7 flip-flops are preset and the U8 flip-flop is cleared at the beginning of a simulation. This sets the initial counter value to 127 to simulate the wiper being at midscale upon power-up.

256 Bit Digital Counter
The counter will be disabled under three instances. The first one is when the CSBAR input is set high. The second one occurs when the U/DBAR input is set high and the non-inverting outputs of the flip-flops are all high. This only occurs when the counter is trying to increment and the output of the counter is already at 255 and thus prevents it from rolling over to 0. The third instance occurs when the U/DBAR is set low and the inverting outputs of the flip-flops are all high. This occurs when the counter output is at 0, and the counter is trying to decrement. It prevents the rollover from 0 to 255.

The J-K inputs of each flip-flop are tied together. The logic that feeds into the J-K inputs controls whether the flip-flop will toggle or remain in its current state at the next negative transition of the clock. When the counter is incrementing, if all of the less significant non-inverting outputs are high then the flip-flop will be set to toggle upon the next clock transition. When the counter is decrementing, if all of the less significant inverting outputs are high then the flip-flop will be set to toggle upon the next clock transition. Otherwise, the flip-flop will stay in its current state. In both cases, the counter must be enabled for the flip-flop to toggle.

The non-inverting outputs of the flip-flops are fed into a DtoA component. The purpose of the DtoA component is to convert the digital value of the counter into an analog voltage that the resistors can reference to adjust their resistance values. The Reference node for the DtoA is a 256 volt battery. The 256 volt reference causes the analog output to be equivalent to the value of the actual tap position that is being assigned. For example, if the counter is pointing to the 87th tap position, the voltage at the output of the node will be 87V. The advantage in this method is that it is easy to view which tap position is being used when running an analysis. Simply plot the voltage at the node DtoA_Out within the macro.

The two resistors of the potentiometer then use the output voltage of the DtoA component in determining their own resistance values. When the counter is incremented, the resistance value of the RL resistor is increased, and subsequently, the RH resistor value is decreased. The VALUE attribute of the RL resistor is defined as:

RValue*(V(DtoA_Out)/(Taps-1))

and the VALUE attribute of the RH resistor is defined as:

RValue*(1-(V(DtoA_Out)/(Taps-1)))

RValue is the macro parameter that is passed through to the circuit. It represents the resistance value for the potentiometer. The variable Taps is the number of taps in the potentiometer and is assigned the value 256 through a .define statement. The three outputs of the potentiometer are the outputs H, W, and L. These correspond to the high terminal, wiper terminal, and low terminal of the potentiometer. The DtoA and resistor portion of the macro can be seen below.

DtoA and Potentiometer Resistors
Example Circuit
The example circuit for the digital potentiometer macro appears below. The opamp, a MAX402, is set up in a basic non-inverting gain configuration. The opamp is powered by 5V and -5V power supplies and has a 1V, 10kHz sine wave going into the non-inverting input. The presence of the digital potentiometer in the feedback provides a variable gain amplification for the circuit. The RValue parameter for the macro is set at 10k. Three digital stimuli control the wiper position of the potentiometer. The .define statements for each of the stimuli are as follows:

.define INC
+label=start
+0ns 0
+50ns 1
+100ns goto start -1 times

.define CS
+0 1
+10u 0
+14.2u 1
+280u 0
+288.5u 1

.define UD
+0 0
+14.2u 1
+48u 1

Digital Potentiometer Example Circuit
The transient analysis results for the circuit appear below. The top plot group displays the voltages at nodes In and Out. The middle plot displays the voltage at the output of the DtoA component inside the potentiometer macro, and the bottom plot displays the values of the two potentiometer resistors. The simulation starts with the potentiometer at midscale (tap 127). From 10us to 14.2us, the wiper position is decremented until it reaches tap 85. At this point, the RH resistor is at 6.667kOhms and the RL resistor is at 3.333kOhms, and the gain of the opamp is set at 3. From 280us to 288.5us, the wiper position is incremented until it reaches tap 170. The resistance of RH is now 3.333kOhms, the resistance of RL is 6.667kOhms, and the gain of the opamp is set at 1.5.

Digital Potentiometer Example Analysis
Modifying the Macro Circuit
Not all digital potentiometers will use 256 taps for the wiper. If a potentiometer uses less taps, this macro can be easily modified to simulate that device with three steps.

1) Change the inputs to the And gate in the counter whose output is at node All1. This And gate determines the maximum value that the counter will go to using the outputs of the flip-flops. For example, if you want to simulate 128 taps, you would replace the Q8 input with Q8B. The counter would then go no higher than 127.

2) Swap the necessary Hi and Set texts on the prebar and clear nodes of the flip-flops to create the initial power-up value. For example, if you want the 128 bit counter to power-up at midscale, you would need to place the Set text on the clear pin and the Hi text on the preset pin of the U7 flip-flop. The power-up wiper position would then start at tap 63.

3) Change the .define Taps statement so that Taps is set to the number of taps that will be used by the device. For the 128 tap potentiometer, the statement should read '.define Taps 128'.

 
Return to the main Newsletter page